HISTORY
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The Huns were a group of nomadic (roaming) herdsmen, warlike people

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Empires of Mesopotamia

When we speak of Mesopotamia as dominated by one group or another, the traditions and governments of other groups thrived beneath this domination. These diverse city-states were always on the look-out for an opportunity for independence, and the history of the exchange of power is largely determined by the desire for independence seething below the surface.

 Sumerians    2900-1800 BCAkkadians     2340-2125 BCAmorites      1800-1530 BCHittites         1600-717 BCKassites       1530-1170 BCAssyrians     1170-612BCChaldeans     612-539 BC In the dialect of the Accadians and proto Medes the "dh" can sometimes be pronounced as the Hungarian "gy", (ref Sayce, Accadian Phonology,1877) therefore their word for the numeral one "id" can be "igy or egy" as in Hungarian and their country as "Magya or Megye" which in Hungarian means province. Similarly, in ancient Parthian Megala meant a province. The term which later became Magyar then in this sense can simply mean "man of the country/province". The territory of the Mada or Mitani was called Magor by certain Egyptian references (Wallace Budge, An Hieroglypic Dictionary, appendix of place names) and referred to a rather large territory in northern Mesopotamia and eastern Mediterranean area. The Egyptian reference exaggerates the territory of the Mitani, but perhaps is related to the later dispersal of the Hurrians through the Middle East. Magor was also the name of the mythical ancestor of the Hungarian nation in the story of the Legend of the Stag.

Assyr references from 700 B.C. refer to the Sabirs as Sapar-da.

An Assyrian wall sculpture of a royal personage and attendant. Assyria was originally a narrow strip of land on either side of the River Tigris, but the empire grew to be a major power at its height, encompassing Elam, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, the Arabian marches, and Egypt. It fell into decline in the 7th century BC.

Empire in the Middle East c. 2500–612 BC, in northern Mesopotamia (now Iraq); early capital Ashur, later Nineveh. It was initially subject to Sumer and intermittently to Babylon. The Assyrians adopted largely the Sumerian religion and structure of society. At its greatest extent the empire included Egypt and stretched from the eastern Mediterranean coast to the head of the Gulf.

Persian references starting from the time of Darius, the first Persian king refer to this area as the land of the Sabarda (Sabir), their neighbors the Matiene (Mada).

Cyrus the Great

Cyrus the Great (ca. 576 or 590 BC — August 530 BC), also known as Cyrus II of Persia and Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. As leader of the Persian people in Anshan, he conquered the Medes and unified the two separate Iranian kingdoms; as the king of Persia, he reigned over the new empire from 559 BC until his death. The empire expanded under his rule, eventually conquering most of Southwest Asia, much of Central Asia, and much of the region just bordering the powerful Indian empire to create the largest nation the world had yet seen.

During his 29-year reign, Cyrus fought against some of the greatest states of the early Classical period, including the Median Empire, the Lydian Empire, and the

                                                                                                                                      
Cyrus

Neo-Babylonian Empire. Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, as he himself died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in August 530 BC. Cyrus was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to conquer Egypt during his short rule.

The Greek historian Herodotus (ca 440 BC) refers to them as Sapir (Sabir), and their neighboors as Makr-on (Magar) and Matiene. There is still a mountain in the southern Caucasus called Magar as well as a mountain called Nimrud.

Linguists have also claimed that the Magyar name derives from Mas-gar, based on the Ugrian term for man/hero which is "mosh". This root word is found in a range of early Ugrian (mos), Tuva (madir), Dravidian (mac), Sumerian (mus) and Scythian(mas) tongues also to mean the same thing. Therefore, it has a very good historic etymology, but alas where was it used exclusively to denote a nation? In several Central

Herodotus

Asian areas, predominantly amongst Scythian nations. Massa-geta comes to mind first of all, especially since the Massageta tribal confederacy name remained the longest amongst the Baskir Hungarians on the edge of eastern Europe and since several early historians also mentioned a Magar tribe living next to Massageta areas in their early history in Central Asia. (ref Armenian Chronicles)

 Even further east of the Massageta, a special branch of this Scythian people was called the "royal scythians" by the Greek historians who called their rulers also by the Makaroi title and their group "saka-uraka" which are the lords of the Saka people. These terms and titles were found on Saka-Uraka coins near India, after they were pushed out of their original territory by the eastern Huns. Even today they are recognized in Hungarian to mean lord of the Saka, just as the ancient Greek chroniclers interpreted it. The SAKA term has many Hungarian cognates which fully describe a nation, clan, ruler, territory, language etc associated with an ethnic group.

Other Greek references mention the people called "Tibar and Moser" who were metal workers of the Caucasus agree with the Biblical Tubal (Tibar) and Mes'ek (Mosher). These are believed by some historians to be the distorted names of Subar (Tibar) and Machar (Moser), which can also mean varieties of smiths in the Hungarian language. Mozser meaning sword smith while Tibor meaning smith in the past, but not anymore. Similarly, in Sumerian tibir=smith while Turkic timur=iron. Today Tibor in Hungarian is just a masculine name.

The Huns

The Huns appear officially in history only when their hordes coming from the east reach the Roman Empire and in a very short time, they conquer most of Europe. Before that time, they have been numbered among the nomadic tribes of the Asian steppes and their origin was almost unknown. Now we have many research elements that have brought more light about this people, or complex of peoples, and have discovered that they were present in the most ancient times in Mesopotamia, and that have even been linked in some way, though not ethnically, with the Israelites in different times along history. The Huns' origin is directly connected with two well-known peoples of ancient Middle East: the Sumerians and the Scythians, namely, in the kingdom founded by Nimrod. Even though they belong to the Japhetic stock and their most creditable ancestor is Magog, the Sumerian heritage has been kept by them more than by any other people, which implies that they are in fact the result of a mixed background. According to their own legendary accounts (legends that are anyway founded on true facts), it is very feasible that Magog's descent was under Nimrod's rule, and that they kept close ties with Sumerians even for a long time after the Sumerians disappeared from Mesopotamia as a national entity. Their particular link with ancient Sumerians was found through the comparison of modern Hungarian (Magyar) and other related languages with documents of the ancient Middle East, that revealed a possible common origin. It is evident that the language element is absolutely not a sufficient basis to establish the origin of peoples, since language can be lost and adopted from other non-related cultures (for example, Yiddisch, a German-based tongue, became for centuries the language of European Jews, who are Semitic). Therefore, other more relevant elements like traditions, cultural heritage and, if existing, historic documents are needed. Taking language as the starting point, we have to consider on one side the whole complex of peoples that may be regarded as Huns (Hunogurs, Bulgars, Magyars, Sabirs, etc) and on the other side, the relationship between Sumerians, Scythians, Hurrites and Elamites.

Who Were the Huns?

The Huns were a group of nomadic (roaming) herdsmen, warlike people from the steppes (grasslands) of North Central Asia north of China (Mongolia) who terrorized, pillaged, and destroyed much of Asia and Europe from the 3rd through 5th centuries. The use of the stirrup gave the Huns a technological advantage over other warriors of the time. Stirrups are loops hung from a saddle that support a horse rider's feet; these let the Huns brace themselves on their horses while wielding swords or shooting arrows.

Hordes Attack Asia and Europe

The Chinese successfully defended themselves against the Huns in the 3rd century (the Huns were then led by Mao-tun, the first great leader and uniter of the Huns). The Chinese started building their Great Wall to defend themselves against the Huns. The people of India, Persia (what is now Iran), and eastern and central Europe were invaded by separate hordes of Hunnish warriors attacking on horseback. In Europe, groups of Huns defeated the Goths (Germans) of eastern Europe, the Slavs, the Franks (French), the Roman Empire, and many others. The Huns settled in the area that is now called Hungary  A Hunnish horde under the leader Rugulas (also called Rua, Roas, or Rugila), attacked the eastern Roman Empire (ruled by Emperor Theodosius) in A.D. 430, forcing the Romans to pay huge tributes of gold to the Huns or face more destruction.

Attila the Hun (born about 406 - died 453): Upon Rugulas' death in 433, Attila and his older brother Bleda (nephews of Rugulas) became co-leaders of the Huns. After killing his own brother in A.D. 445, Attila took control of the Huns. Attila the Hun was the most successful king of the Huns; Attila was often called the "Scourge of God."

Under Attila's rule, the Huns united and extended their territory greatly, reaching ever deeper into Europe. After a defeat at Chalons (in what is now northern France) in A.D. 451, the Huns invaded Italy (in 452), destroying much of northern Italy. [Refugees from a demolished Padua (a city in northeastern Italy) fled and founded the city of Venice, which they built on the water in a lagoon so the new city would be protected from invaders.] Pope Leo I intervened and convinced Attila to stop the destruction of Italy -- Rome was spared (although some

 Historians say that Attila stopped his campaign because of rampant disease and a lack of supplies).

The End of the Huns: Attila died during his sleep on the night of his last wedding -- Attila had many wives. He died from a serious nosebleed (a nasal hemorrhage), but some people say that he was poisoned. After Attila's death, Attila's sons fought over who would rule the Huns. The resulting chaos was exploited by the Ostrogoths and other Germanic tribes, who used the opportunity to revolt against the Huns. The Hunnish empire soon broke apart.

The Early History of the Hungarian Ethnic Designations

AD 895-900 Seven Magyar tribes from the East occupy the Carpathian basin.

1000 Foundation of the Hungarian state; St. Stephen, the first Hungarian king converts the country to western Christianity. Western orientation.

 

1222 Andrew II (1175-1235) issues the Golden Bull stating the basic rights and privileges of the nobility; it plays a role similar to that of the Magna Carta of 1215.

 

1241-1242 Mongolian invasion.

 

1300-1500 Hungary is a wealthy and flourishing kingdom again. In the 14th century it extends its borders to the Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Adriatic Sea.

 

1458-1490 The court of king Matthias Hunyadi Corvinus is a center of Renaissance culture, visited by numerous great humanist thinkers and artists of the period. A core mercenary army was constructed, and modern managerial practices were established to control the Hungarian economy. Matthias Corvinus appoints Magyars to the most important offices and authorities, though the German population (approx. 50%) retains its own rights; struggle against the Turks.

 

1514 Peasant's uprising weakens the country

 

1526   Crushing defeat of the Hungarian army at the hands of the Turks in the Battle of Mohács. Country split into three parts: the west ceded to the Habsburgs, the principality of Transylvania established in the east, the central regions under Turkish occupation

 

1541-1686 Under Turkish rule (lasting 145 years) Buda becomes the western outpost of the Ottoman Empire.

 

1686 Recapture of Buda and Pest by the Imperial troops under Prince Eugene of Savoy. The entire Hungary goes under Habsburg rule, in a semi-colonial situation.

 

1703-1711 Independence struggle against the Habsburg claim to power in Transylvania led by Prince Ferenc II Rákóczi -defeated.

 

1836 Hungarian becomes the official language.

 

1848-1949 March 15, 1848: the national independence struggle leads to revolution (proclamation of independence on 14 April 1849). August 1849: Russian troops coming to help Austria suppress Hungarians' fight for independence.

 

1867-1914 Pest becomes seat of the Imperial Diet and of all Hungarian offices of the Austro- Hungarian Dual Monarchy. Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph I crowned King of Hungary. Economic, social and political development.

 

1914-1918 The Monarchy, allied with the German empire, is defeated in the First World War.

 

1918 Bourgeois democratic revolution, republic proclaimed

 

1919 Bolshevik, soviet republic lasting 133 days

 

1920 In the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary loses two-thirds of its territory and one-third of its population; 3 million Hungarians are left outside the country's borders.

 

1919-1944 The regency of Miklós Horthy. Hungary is a kingdom without a king, governed by a conservative elite, which obstructs social and political development.  From the start, Horthy endeavours to have Hungary's original borders restored and sets up a conservative parliamentary regime with dictatorial elements.

 

1941 During the Second World War, Hungary allows German troops to cross its territory on their way to Yugoslavia. Prime minister Count Teleki commits suicide. Hungary declares war on the Soviet Union; following devastating defeat of 2nd Hungarian army.

 

1944 After six-week siege, Budapest occupied by German troops. Persecution of Jews begins under direction of Eichmann. Provisional government declares war on Germany.

 

1945 After a year of devastating war, Hungary is "liberated" from the German troops and conquered by the Soviet Red Army. The capital and most of its industry is lying in ruins.

 

1945-1947 The country is governed by a coalition of political parties; parliamentary democracy is disturbed by strong Soviet pressure and interference. At the elections of 1945, the Communist party receives only 17 % of votes. At the 1947 elections, in spite of large scale electoral cheating, it receives only 22 %.

 

1948 Turning point; the Hungarian Workers’ Party (which is a forced alliance of the Communists and the Social Democrats) seizes power and establishes a totalitarian one- party rule.

 

1953 The first attempt at loosening the totalitarian rule; the first government of Imre Nagy.

 

1955 Come-back of the Stalinists

Hungarian Revolution of 1956
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hungarian_Revolution_of_1956

 

1956-1957 National uprising against Soviet domination and the beginning of a democratic revolution against communist rule. October 23: beginning of the Hungarian Revolution against Soviet rule which is brutally crushed by the invasion of Soviet troops on 4 November 1956. Re-establishment of communist rule.

 

1957-1988 The Kádár regime - Socialist People's Republic with one-party system. After bloody reprisals in 1957-58, and the execution of former prime minister Imre Nagy and about 400 freedom fighters and politicians, a slow liberalisation begins in the mid 1960s. The 1970s are the “goulash-communism” of  Kádár: relative affluence, gradual relaxation of political control, enlightened and paternalistic absolutism. In 1968, the so-called New Economic System is launched, which is the first important step on the road of transforming the centralised and planned state socialist economy into a market or mixed economy. In 1970, the reform process is obstructed by the conservative forces and slowed down by the resistance of Brezhnev and the Soviet leadership. Economic and social crisis followed.

 

1989 Hungary opens its borders to Austria and lets Germans from East-Germany go to the "West". October 23 - Proclamation of the Republic of Hungary  – end of the Socialist People's Republic.

 

1990 The first free parliamentary election in forty-two years (- adopted from Hankiss, E.(1990) East European Alternatives, Clarendon Press, Oxford. 275-277) Victory of the conservative Hungarian Democratic Forum under Prime Minister József Antall. Hungary joins the Council of Europe (6 November 1990). New things introduced: multi-party system, private ownership,increasing unemployment, adjusting from backward technology to top technology. Major reduction in social welfare and security, no job security, increasing gap between the rich and the poor. The abolishment of free health care and free higher education.

 

1991 February Visegrád Group formed (together with Poland and the then Czechoslovakia)

 

1991 June Red Army withdraws from Hungary.

 

1991 July Warsaw Pact dissolved

 

1991 December Association Agreement signed with the EC (in force since 1 February 1994) Admission to NATO's North Atlantic Cooperation Council

 

1994 Second free elections: victory of the moderat left wing Hungarian Socialist Party under Prime Minister Gyula Horn; coalition formed with the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats Hungary applies to join the EU.

 

1997 Hungary invited to begin accession negotiations with the European Union at the European Council meeting in Luxembourg NATO Protocol of Accession signed

 

1998 First (screening) phase of EU accession negotiations begins. Parliamentary elections: victory of moderate right-wing FIDESZ-MPP which forms a coalition with the FKgP and MDF under Prime Minister Viktor Orbán. Accession negotiations with EU begin.

 

1999 Hungary joins NATO.

 

2000 Professor Ferenc Mádl elected President

 

2002 Parliamentary elections won by the moderate-left wing MSzP which forms a coalition government with the liberal SzDSz, headed by prime minister Péter Medgyessy. Successful conclusion to negotiations for the EU accession treaty

 

Main source: The Shadow of Hungarian History, Dr. Katalin Illés & Dr. Bronwen Rees, 2000, Anglia Business School, Cambridge, UK

 

2004 May Hungary joins the European Union

 

2004 September Former sports minister Ferenc Gyurcsany becomes prime minister following resignation of Peter Medgyessy in row with coalition partner over reshuffle.

 

2004 December Low turnout invalidates referendum on whether or not to offer citizenship to some five million ethnic Hungarians living outside Hungary.

 

2005 June Parliament ratifies EU constitution.

 

Parliament chooses opposition-backed Laszlo Solyom as next president after Socialists' candidate is blocked by their Free Democrat coalition partners.

 

2006 April More than 10,000 troops and police battle floodwaters as the Danube river reaches record levels.

 

General elections return to power Socialist-led coalition under Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsany.

 

2006 September Thousands rally in Budapest demanding the resignation of Prime Minister Gyurcsany, after it was revealed his government had lied during elections.
 

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